Issues and potentials of cloning

Normally, cells or organs from one individual even one of the same species will be rejected by another; the host recognizes the graft as foreign because of differences in surface molecules on the cells. Print Advertisement Many readers have asked variants on this question.

The ethical issues with reproductive cloning include genetic damage to the clone, health risks to the mother, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life.

Rainbow and CC are living proof that a clone will not look exactly like the donor of its genetic material. Skin graft rejection caused by the maternally transmitted antigen Mta. They run into trouble, however, when they realize that the cloned creatures were smarter and fiercer than expected.

Stem cells are rarer [ 24 ] and more difficult to find in adults than in preimplantation embryos, and it has proved harder to grow some kinds of adult stem cells into cell lines after isolation [ 25 ; 26 ]. Far-fetched views describe farms filled with clones whose organs are harvested for transplantation—a truly horrific idea.

Issue Analysis: Human cloning

Isolation of multipotent adult stem cells from the dermis of mammalian skin. These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. Currently, the primary justification for therapeutic cloning is as a means of harvesting embryonic stem cells. The ethical validity of using nuclear transfer in human transplantation.

Therefore, one of the most important breakthroughs with current work is not cloning itself but the ability to turn a genetically modified cell into a fully developed animal. Finally, most of the studies that have garnered so much attention have used mouse rather than human adult stem cells.

Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells. So we can clone things. Nature Jul 09, It's extremely unlikely that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time.

Because this method of cloning is identical with the natural formation of monozygotic twins and, in rare cases, even quadruplets, it is not discussed in detail in this report.

This procedure—sometimes called therapeutic cloning, research cloning, or nonreproductive cloning, and referred to here as nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells—would be used to generate pluripotent ES cells that are genetically identical with the cells of a transplant recipient [ 50 ].

There are numerous other examples, so transplantation therapy could potentially relieve suffering in many thousands or even millions of patients. In addition to the epigenetic defects, cells derived from cloning that are injected back into the donor are rejected because of epigenetic mis-expression, genetic differences due to mitochondrial DNA, and the incompatibility of cells too immature in development to interact with adult tissue environments.

The result is CC's black and white tiger-tabby coat. Drug production Farm animals such as cows, sheep, and goats are being genetically engineered to produce drugs or proteins that are useful in medicine. That might be reasonably straightforward for a simple structure, such as a pancreatic islet that produces insulin, but it is more challenging for tissues as complex as that from lung, kidney, or liver [ 54 ; 55 ].

Because fibroblasts are so simple to grow in culture, it is possible to use the large-scale but inefficient methods of inserting genes into cells and selecting the cells with the correctly inserted gene. Additional differences may occur in clones that do not have identical mitochondria.

Nature Jun 29, Techniques not yet developed or described here would nonetheless constitute cloning if they resulted in genetically identical individuals of which at least one were an embryo destined for implantation and birth.

Enrichment and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells. For example, in reference 10 it is proposed that human reproductive cloning aimed at establishing a genetic link to a gametically infertile parent would be more justifiable than an attempt by a sexually fertile person aimed at choosing a specific genome.

For these reasons, Christians should continue to oppose all forms of human cloning as unethical and unnecessary.

Why Clone?

Science Jun 08, Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: By contrast, isolated clumps of mouse ES cells introduced into trophoblast vesicles never give rise to anything remotely resembling a postimplantation embryo, as opposed to a disorganized mass of trophoblast.

The chromosomes are replaced with a nucleus taken from a somatic body cell of the individual or embryo to be cloned. JAMA Dec 27, The vast majority of scientists and lawmakers view human reproductive cloning—cloning for the purpose of making a human baby—immoral.

ES cell lines are of potential interest for transplantation because one cell line can multiply indefinitely and can generate not just one type of specialized cell, but many different types of specialized cells brain, muscle, and so on that might be needed for transplants [ 20 ; 28 ; 45 ; 48 ; 49 ].

Purification of a pluripotent neural stem cell from the adult mouse brain. Nature Aug 16, Cloning research on human cells has been made legal in the UK.

As all other advances in human reproduction, human cloning has raised ethical and moral issues, which possibly would subside with the passage of time as has happened before.

In Case You Were Sleeping On June 22ndthe world was changed in such a radical way that it will never be the same. A group of Scottish scientists from the Roslin Institute did the impossible and created the world's first genetic clone, a sheep named Dolly.

She was an exact replica of. What are the potential medical benefits of animal cloning? So far I have mostly read about the social problems cloning could create if applied to humans. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future by Marie A.

Di Berardino, Ph.D. The not-too-distant future of the hereditary potentials, and the germ cells (gametes) of the embryo are the only becomes the prototype experiment for cloning multicellular organisms. Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning considers the scientific and medical sides of this issue, plus ethical issues that pertain to human-subjects research.

Based on experience with reproductive cloning in animals, the report concludes that human reproductive cloning would be dangerous for the woman, fetus, and newborn. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future by Marie A. Di Berardino, Ph.D.

The not-too-distant of the hereditary potentials, and the germ cells (gametes) of the embryo are the only This illustrated timeline shows essential milestones in basic research that led to .

Issues and potentials of cloning
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